Observations, data accuracy and tools

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Chapter Editor: John Turner

Authors: Todd Arbetter, Rob Arthern, Carlo Barbante, Roberto Bargagli, Dana Bergstrom, Nancy Bertler, Robert Bindschadler, James Bockheim, Carole Boutron, David Bromwich, Steve Chown, Andrew Clarke, Josifino Comiso, Pete Convey, Alison Cook, Guido di Prisco, Eberhard Fahrbach, Jim Fastook, Andrew Fleming, Mauro Gugliemin, Julian Gutt, Hartmut Hellmer, Françoise Hennion, Karen Heywood, David Holland, Ad Huiskes, Adrian Jenkins, Anna Jones, Anthony Lenton, Dominic Hodgson, Seok Hong, Stan Jacobs, Katrin Linse, Gareth Marshall, Paul Mayewski, Mike Meredith, Nicolas Metzl, Andrew Monaghan, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Steve Rintoul, Howard Roscoe, Jonathan Shanklin, Ted Scambos, Mike Sparrow, Kevin Speer, Mark Stevens, Colin Summerhayes, John Turner, Kees van der Veen, David Vaughan, Cinzia Verde, Zhaomin Wang, David Webb, Philip Woodworth, Tony Worby, Roger Worland, Takashi Yamanouchi


In this chapter we consider the various types of data and models that are available to investigate climatic and environmental change in the Antarctic. We examine the availability and accuracy of in-situ physical and biological data, including the data that can be extracted from ice cores, along with the information that can be obtained from satellite systems that have become increasingly important over the last couple of decades.

Mathematical models have been utilized increasingly in Antarctic research. Initially their applications were in the more physical areas of climate, ice sheet, sea ice and ocean modelling. However, they are now starting to be employed in biology – a trend that seems set to continue in the future.

Pages in this topic

  1. Meteorological and ozone observing in the Antarctic
  2. In-situ ocean observations
  3. Satellite observations of the Southern Ocean
  4. Sea ice observations
  5. Observations of the ice sheet
  6. Observations of Antarctic permafrost
  7. Sea level observations
  8. Observations of marine biology
  9. Observations of terrestrial biology
  10. Models of the physical and biological environment of the Antarctic
  11. Future developments in Antarctic observation