File:Figure 1.9 - Meridional section through the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.png
South (left) to north (right) section through the overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean. South-flowing products of deep convection in the North Atlantic are converted into upper-layer mode and intermediate waters and deeper bottom waters and returned northward. Marked are the positions of the main fronts (PF – Polar Front; SAF – Sub-Antarctic Front; and STF – Subtropical Front), and water masses (AABW – Antarctic Bottom Water; LCDW and UCDW, Lower and Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters; NADW – North Atlantic Deep Water; AAIW – Antarctic Intermediate Water and SAMW – Sub-Antarctic Mode Water) (from Speer et al., 2000). Note that as well as water moving north to south or vice versa, it is also generally moving eastward (i.e. towards the observer in the case of this cross section), except along the coast where coastal currents move water westward (away from the observer).
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